depression

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Introduction

Clinical, unipolar depression is more than just feeling low for a day or two.

Depression is characterised as episodes of sadness, loss of interest and pleasure, often including feelings of low self-worth. Depression can also include a range of physiological symptoms, such as fatigue, pain, diminished appetite, lack of interest in sex, disturbed sleep, and poor concentration.

The World Health Organisation estimates that, globally, as many as 350 million people are affected at any given time, with one person in 20 reporting an episode of depression in a 12 month period (in a global sample of 17 countries). They describe depression as the leading cause of disability worldwide.

What we know already

We know that, despite the considerable global burden of depression, not everybody receives treatment, with figures ranging from 50% to 10% in less developed countries.

Evidence suggests that combined psychological and pharmacological treatments seem to work well. Broadly, we know that psychotherapies work in many cases – but not every time. We know that neurochemical factors, such as serotonergic dysfunction, play an important role in depression, which goes a long way in explaining the efficacy of SSRI treatments.

We also know that depression has a nasty habit of recurrence, and some psychological interventions, such as Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is recommended particularly for people who have experienced multiple episodes of depression, but not are currently severely depressed.

We know that people living with chronic physical illness are more likely to experience depression, and this combination is linked with poorer clinical outcomes.

Importantly though, we know that people with depression can still enjoy themselves, and a common misconception in depression is that people feel totally awful all of the time.

Areas of uncertainty

There is much still to determine. For example, we know that depression is hereditable, however the extent of heredity versus environmental influences are unclear.

We are also unsure as to the precise mechanisms that determine those who respond best to treatments, be they psychopharmacological, or psychological, or both.

What’s in the pipeline?

Despite advances in our understanding of depression, and how it is treated, it remains a highly recurrent difficulty, with many people not achieving complete remission between episodes.

Preventative interventions, either physiological, or psychological, may improve people’s resilience to depression, particularly those identified as being highly prone.

References

Cuijpers, P. (2015). Psychotherapies for adult depression: recent developments. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 28, 24-29. [Abstract]

Naylor, C., Parsonage, M., McDaid, D., Knapp, M., Fossey, M. and Galea, A. (2012) Long-term conditions and mental health: the cost of co-morbidities. The King’s Fund, London, UK [PDF]

World Health Organisation (2015).Factsheet 369: Depression [Link]

Photo Credits

Sascha Kohlmann CC BY 2.0

Acknowledgement

Written by: Patrick Kennedy-Williams
Reviewed by:
Last updated: Nov 2015
Review due: Sep 2016

Our depression Blogs

cCBT for people with learning disabilities: Pesky gNATs #MHNR2017

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Leen Vereenooghe presents the results of an RCT of computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for people with learning disabilities, featuring the computer game “Pesky gNATs: The Feel Good Island”.

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Genetics of depression: risk factors and protective factors

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Marcus Munafò reports on a new genome-wide association study that identifies 44 risk variants and helps us to further refine the genetic architecture of major depressive disorder.

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Physical activity and depression: new review confirms high levels of sedentary behaviour

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Tayla McCloud summarises a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, which found that more than two-thirds of people with depression did not comply with the recommendation of 150 minutes of physical activity per week.

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Does cannabis influence depression?

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Rob Allison and Ian Hamilton summarise a recent retrospective twin cohort study that explores the links between cannabis use and depression, suicidal thoughts and behaviours.

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CBT versus counselling for depression: it ain’t what you do, it’s the way that you do it

CBT led to significant and modest improvements in subjective QoL and HRQoL from pre- to post-treatment and follow-up.

Mark Smith channels Ella Fitzgerald whilst reviewing evidence from the 2nd UK National Audit of psychological therapies, which compares CBT and generic counselling in the treatment of depression.

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Ecological momentary interventions: smartphones have changed everything and here’s how digital mental health might begin to catch up

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Mark Brown is feeling positive about the digital future on mental health after reviewing a new paper about ecological momentary interventions for depression and anxiety.

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Memory lane: the road to recovery in depression?

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Becci Strawbridge explores a prospective cohort study that looks at variation in the recall of socially rewarding information and depressive symptom severity.

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Preventing depression in low-income mothers: Head Start RCT in the community

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Tayla McCloud appraises the recent Head Start randomised controlled trial measuring the efficacy of a maternal depression prevention strategy.

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Investigating the link between loneliness and sleep quality in young people

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Ahmed Al-Shihabi and Farhana Mann report on a recent twin study that explores the links between loneliness and sleep quality in young adults.

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Trajectories of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents

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Jess Bone on a systematic review of longitudinal studies, which explores the different trajectories of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents, and the factors that might help predict or protect young people.

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