Peri-implantitis: a common complication of dental implants?


Peri-implant disease (Peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis) is a complication of dental implant treatment and studies have provided a wide range of estimates of its prevalence. The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the scientific literature in order to evaluate the prevalence, extent and severity of peri-implant diseases.


Searches were conducted in the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases supplemented by hand searches of the journals; Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, European Journal of Oral Implants, Implant Dentistry, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontal Research and Journal of Periodontology.

Studies evaluating the incidence or prevalence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis reporting samples of at least 100 patients were considered. Prospective studies were considered for incidence and cross-sectional studies for prevalence. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE checklist. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate overall prevalence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.


  • 11 studies described in 15 articles were included.
  • Adherence to the STROBE criteria varied between 55% and 77%.
  • Case definitions for mucositis and peri-implantitis varied.
peri-implant mucositis peri-implantitis
Prevalence (range) 19 to 65% 1 to 47%,
Estimated weighted mean prevalence 43% (CI: 32-54%) 22% (CI: 14-30%)
  • Meta-regression showed a positive relationship between prevalence of peri-implantitis and function time and a negative relationship between prevalence of peri-implantitis and threshold for bone loss.
  • Extent and severity of peri-implant diseases were rarely reported.


The authors concluded:

Future studies on the epidemiology of peri-implant diseases should consider applying consistent case definitions. Randomly selected patients should preferably be included and reasonable minimum function times should be considered. Reporting should include prevalence, extent and severity of the different disease entities.


The authors recommend interpreting the results of their review with caution as there was a high degree of heterogeneity across the studies. This was likely to be due to variation in the case definitions, follow up periods, the fact all the studies were based on convenience samples are all likely to contribute to this. The findings do however suggest that peri-implant disease is a common complication of implant treatment.


Derks J, Tomasi C. Peri-implant health and disease. A systematic review of current epidemiology. J Clin Periodontol. 2015 Apr;42 Suppl 16:S158-71. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12334. PubMed PMID: 25495683.

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