Evidence to suggest alcohol consumption is a risk indicator for periodontitis.

shutterstock_51359269 dentist and patient looking at x-ray

The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate the association between the frequency of alcohol consumption and periodontitis.

A sample of 542 adults  aged 35-55 underwent a complete periodontal examinations with alcohol consumption being measured using AUDIT (alcohol use disorders identification test)  and CAGE (Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) instruments. Patients were classified into 4 groups; (1) no or occasional alcohol use (NA), (2) moderate alcohol use (MA), (3) intense alcohol use (IA) and (4) alcohol dependence (DA).  Associated were tested using univariate and multivariate logistic regression stratified by smoking status when appropriate.

They found

[table id=9 /]

They concluded  that :-

Occurrence of periodontitis among alcohol users were high and the frequency of alcohol consumption increased the odds of periodontitis incrementally mainly in smokers.


Lages EJP, Costa FO, Lages EMB, Cota LOM, Cortelli SC, Nobre-Franco GC, Cyrino RM, Cortelli JR. Risk variables in the association between frequency of alcohol consumption and periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2011; doi: 10.1111/ j.1600-051X.2011.01809.x.


Related reviews and commentaries

Amaral Cda S, Vettore MV, Leão A. The relationship of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption with periodontitis: a systematic review. J Dent. 2009 Sep;37(9):643-51. Epub 2009 May 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 19576673.

Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice commentary

 Evidence-based Dentistry commentary


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Derek Richards

Derek Richards is a specialist in dental public health, Director of the Centre for Evidence-Based Dentistry and Specialist Advisor to the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP) Development Team. A former editor of the Evidence-Based Dentistry Journal and chief blogger for the Dental Elf website until December 2023. Derek has been involved with a wide range of evidence-based initiatives both nationally and internationally since 1994. Derek retired from the NHS in 2019 remaining as a part-time senior lecturer at Dundee Dental School until the end of 2023.

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